Methods which permit a given purpose to be achieved without conducting procedures on animals. In the context of replace, the abbreviation NAM is often used. It should be noted that NAM stands for “Novel Approach Methodologies”, but is also used for “Non-Animal Methods”, although these two terms have different meanings. “Novel Approach Methodologies” comes from the regulatory framework and describes methods that are not classified as animal testing and includes, for example, in silico and in vitro methods, all possible omics technologies etc. that can be used for improved risk assessment. “Non-animal methods” can be understood as methods that do not contain any animal components, i.e. also, for example, human cell culture models without serum or extracellular matrix of animal origin.


Methods for obtaining comparable levels of information from the use of fewer animals in scientific procedures, or for obtaining more information from the same number of animals.


Methods which alleviate or minimise potential pain, suffering or distress, and which enhance animal well-being.

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